Who Has the Most Bitcoins: the 10 Largest Holders Revealed

Published: April 25, 2024 | Last Updated: May 2, 2024

Hudson Kisia

Hudson Kisia has been researching and writing content for ElementalCrypto since 2022. He has been writing about crypto, blockchains, and mining for more than 5 years now.

In this post I will reveal who has the most Bitcoins by looking at the data and wallets on different blockchain explorers. In my research I found that most of these were owned by large entities. Read on to find out more.

who has the most bitcoins

Bitcoin ownership distribution is greatly skewed. Most bitcoin holdings are concentrated in a few entities. The hundred biggest bitcoin holders, known as ‘big whales’ in the crypto industry, control a significant share of the total bitcoin supply in the crypto market.  

Why is it important to know who has the most bitcoins? While there may be many reasons, the most fundamental reason is to know if and how these big whales influence the price of bitcoin in the cryptocurrency market. Their actions and sentiments have a substantial influence on the behavior of bitcoin price in the market. 

In this article, I am going rank the largest Bitcoin holders based on various categories, beginning with the top 10 holders, overall. 

(Caveat: since some of the holdings are actively traded, some positions, especially in the corporate sector, may have changed between the time of writing and the time of publishing this article) 

Top 10 holders (overall) 

Bitcoin holdings
Bitcoin holdings

Here, we are listing the Top 10 holders of Bitcoin (BTC) by gross value overall. These are: 

1. Satoshi Nakamoto 

Leading this list is Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin.  Satoshi has the largest bitcoin holdings, with a combined total of 1.1 million BTC. 

2. Binance 

Founded by Changpeng Zhao, Binance is one of the leading crypto exchanges in the world. Binance takes the second place by holding the second largest amount of bitcoins, totaling 643,546 BTC.   

3. Grayscale 

Grayscale Investments is the leading financial institutional holder of Bitcoin ETFs. As of the time of writing, Grayscale Bitcoin Trust is estimated to hold 627,779 BTC. 

4. Bitfinex 

The second largest holder of bitcoins among cryptocurrency exchanges is Bitfinex. It boasts a Bitcoin holding of 196,252 BTC.   

5. MicroStrategy 

At some point in time, MicroStrategy was the leading corporate holder of bitcoins. Currently, MicroStrategy bitcoin holdings are 174,530 BTC.

6. Mt. Gox 

While Mt. Gox collapsed 10 years ago after filing for bankruptcy in 2014, it is currently under receivership with bitcoin holdings worth 200,000 BTC being held in trust for its creditors.  

By the time of its collapse, Mt. Gox was the leading cryptocurrency exchange in the crypto world, processing 70% of Bitcoin transactions. Unfortunately, serious breaches of its security led to hackers getting away with almost 850,000 BTC forcing it to file for bankruptcy. 

The official receiver announced a deadline for reimbursing creditors to be October 2024. This reimbursement will be in various forms of crypto assets including 142,000 BTC and 143,000 BCH. It will also include fiat assets worth 69 billion JPY.  

7. Robinhood 

A leading brokerage firm in the financial sector, Robinhood holds 118,300 BTC. 

8. Galaxy Digital

An industry insider and provider of blockchain technology, Galaxy Digital holds about 40,000 BTC. 

9. Marathon Digital 

Being a large bitcoin mining corporation, Marathon Digital is naturally expected to hold some bitcoins. Its bitcoin holdings amount to 17,326 BTC. 

10. Tesla 

Closing this list of top 10 holders of bitcoins is Tesla. This company has bitcoins holding of 10,750 BTC

The top 10 bitcoins holding wallets 

Bitcoin wallet
Bitcoin wallet

The ranking of these bitcoin wallets is based on the amount of bitcoins held in them. This is without attributing the wallet ownership to any particular entity. Some of the wallet owners may have also been ranked under different categories in this article.  

The following is a list of the 10 crypto wallet addresses holding the largest amount of bitcoins: 

  1. 34xp4vRoCGJym3xR7yCVPFHoCNxv4Twseo – This wallet holds a significant amount of Bitcoin.  The total holdings are 248,597 BTC. This is about 1.27% of the entire amount of bitcoins in circulation today.  
  1. bc1qgdjqv0av3q56jvd82tkdjpy7gdp9ut8tlqmgrpmv24sq90ecnvqqjwvw97 – This is the next biggest Bitcoin wallet holder. It holds 204,010 BTC. This is almost 1.1% of the total amount of bitcoins in circulation today. 
  1. bc1ql49ydapnjafl5t2cp9zqpjwe6pdgmxy98859v2 –  This is the third largest wallet holding 131,945 BTC. This is equivalent to 0.6% of bitcoins in circulation 
  1. 39884E3j6KZj82FK4vcCrkUvWYL5MQaS3v – 115,177 BTC  
  1. bc1qazcm763858nkj2dj986etajv6wquslv8uxwczt –  94,643 BTC  
  1. 37XuVSEpWW4trkfmvWzegTHQt7BdktSKUs – 94,505 BTC 
  1. 1FeexV6bAHb8ybZjqQMjJrcCrHGW9sb6Uf –  79,957 BTC  
  1. bc1qa5wkgaew2dkv56kfvj49j0av5nml45x9ek9hz6 – 63,370 BTC  
  1. 3LYJfcfHPXYJreMsASk2jkn69LWEYKzexb – 68,200 BTC  
  1. bc1qjasf9z3h7w3jspkhtgatgpyvvzgpa2wwd2lr0eh5tx44reyn2k7sfc27a4 – 66,465 BTC  

The top 5 Bitcoin holders by category 

Bitcoin holder categories
Bitcoin holder categories

The following are the 7 major categories of the top 5 Bitcoin holders: 

1. Top 5 individuals owning the most bitcoins 

Here is a rich list of the top 5 well-known figures who are bitcoin millionaires: 

Satoshi Nakamoto 

When it comes to who has the most bitcoins, no one beats Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous creator of Bitcoin. As listed earlier, Satoshi collectively holds 1.1 million BTC through various Bitcoin addresses. 

The Winklevoss twins 

The famous Winklevoss twins – Cameron Winklevoss and Tyler Winklevoss jointly own 70,000 BTC. They are famous for their legal battle with Mark Zuckerberg. They used a part of their legal settlement to buy these bitcoins. The Winklevoss founded Gemini, one of the most reputable cryptocurrency exchanges in the world.  

Tim Draper 

The Silk Road can’t be mentioned without forgetting Tim Draper. Tim Draper is a venture capitalist who bought 30,000 BTC seized by the U.S. government from Silk Road. He currently holds about 29,500 BTC. 

Michael Saylor 

The fourth on this list is MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor. He holds 17,732 BTC.

The Undisclosed holder 

Just like marking the ‘tomb of the unknown soldier’, this fifth position goes to any of those big whales whose worth remains undisclosed. It could be either of the following: 

  • Brian Armstrong, founder and CEO of DCG, which owns Grayscale Investments 
  • Changpeng Zhao, founder of binance (who is also the current CEO of Binance) 
  • Jack Dorsey, founder of Block Inc., formerly Square 
  • Barry Silbert, co-founder and CEO of Coinbase 

2. Top 5 public companies owning the most bitcoins 

Bitcoin holder - public company
Bitcoin holder – public company

In the early years of Bitcoin, corporate entities shied away from bitcoins. This is because they could not secretly hold bitcoins since a publicly traded company must disclose its financial reports to the public for scrutiny. However, recently, public companies are gaining momentum as prime holders of bitcoins. 

The following are leading public companies: 

MicroStrategy 

Founded by Michael Saylor, MicroStrategy holds 174,530 BTC. 

Galaxy Digital Holdings 

Founded by Michael Novogratz, a former hedge fund manager, Galaxy Digital Holdings has 17,518 BTC in its bitcoins chest. 

Marathon Digital Holdings 

Boosting its profile as one of the largest Bitcoin mining companies in North America, Marathon Digital Holdings has 13,716 BTC in its coffers.  

Tesla 

Associated with technopreneur Elon Musk, Tesla holds 10,750 BTC in its crypto wallets. 

Hut 8 

Another big mining company in North America is Hut 8. This company holds 9,366 BTC.  

3. Top 5 private companies owning the most bitcoins 

Bitcoin holder - private company
Bitcoin holder – private company

Unlike a public company, private companies do not face extreme regulatory scrutiny. Thus, they are more amenable to holding bitcoins. Thus, it is not uncommon to find them having bitcoin holdings being listed as part of their digital assets on their balance sheet. 

The following are the top 5 bitcoin holders in this category: 

Block.One

As of the leading Bitcoin blockchain solutions provider, Block.One has amassed significant bitcoin holdings amounting to 164,000 BTC. 

Mt. Gox 

From a holding of about 200,000, Mt. Gox’s official receiver has 141,686 BTC on account. The rest have been converted to Bitcoin Cash and Japanese Yen to be distributed among the creditors. 

Tether Holdings 

USDT is a leading stablecoin in the crypto world. This stablecoin is owned by Tether Holdings LTD, one of the leading crypto firms. Tether Holdings has a collection of 61,000 BTC. 

Tezos Foundation 

One of the well-known companies in the crypto industry is Tezos Foundation. This company holds 17,500 BTC. 

Stone Ridge Holdings 

Being one of the leading asset management companies, it is not surprising that Stone Ridge Holdings Group is on this list. This company holds 10,000 BTC. 

4. Top 5 crypto exchanges holding the most bitcoins 

For a wide range of reasons, leading crypto exchanges have significant holdings of bitcoins.  

The following are the top 5 holders of bitcoins in this category: 

Binance 

Topping the list of largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world both by the magnitude of its trading volume and the weight of its market capitalization, Binance holds 643,546 BTC. This holding makes it easy for it to facilitate bitcoin transaction flows across the exchange.  

Bitfinex 

As one of the oldest Bitcoin crypto exchanges in the world, Bitfinex holds 204,338 BTC. 

Robinhood 

While Robinhood is a crypto exchange but rather a brokerage exchange that has a separate crypto market it holds the large amount of Bitcoin. Robinhood holds a total of 118,300 BTC. Robinhood also has the wallet with the most amount of Dogecoin.

Coinbase 

Loved by mainstream corporate entities due to its high reputation, Coinbase is one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in the world. This exchange holds 9,500 BTC. 

OKX 

Closing this list is OKX. This crypto exchange platform holds 7,185 BTC. 

5. Top 5 ETFs owning the most bitcoins 

Bitcoin ETF
Bitcoin ETF

The Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) are not real assets but derivatives that represents   an underlying asset. Thus, a Bitcoin ETF is an ETF that has Bitcoin as an underlying asset.  

The value of Bitcoin ETF is not exactly that of the price of Bitcoin since it includes management fees already embedded in it. Thus, the value of an ETF is slightly lower than the real value of bitcoin that it represents. Nonetheless, this can serve as an indicator of how much bitcoins a particular entity that issues Bitcoin ETFs holds. 

Based on the current prices of ETFs, the following are the top 5 ETF entities owning the most bitcoins: 

Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (GBTC) 

Grayscale is the leading holder of Bitcoin ETF. Currently, it holds $22.7 billion worth of bitcoin.  

iShares Bitcoin Trust 

The second leading holder of Bitcoin ETF is iShares Bitcoin Trust (ISBT). Currently, it holds $6.6 billion worth of bitcoin.  

Fidelity Wise Origin Bitcoin Fund 

The third leading holder of Bitcoin ETF is Fidelity Wise Origin Bitcoin Fund. It currently holds $4.7 billion worth of bitcoin.  

ARK 21Shares Bitcoin ETF 

Associated with Arkham Intelligence, the fourth leading holder of Bitcoin ETF is ARK 21Shares Bitcoin ETF. It holds $1.6 billion worth of bitcoin. 

Bitwise Bitcoin ETF Trust 

Closing this list is Bitwise Bitcoin ETF Trust. It holds $1.2 billion worth of bitcoin. 

6. Top 5 governments owning the most bitcoins 

Bitcoin government holders
Bitcoin government holders

In this category, we exclude bitcoins acquired through seizures and confiscations. We only consider those bitcoins that were acquired through the ordinary process of purchases and investment.  

The following are the top 5 governments owning the most bitcoins through the normal process of acquisition: 

El Salvador 

The leading government in terms of acquisition of bitcoins through the normal process of buying is El Salvador. This government is known to own 2,381 BTC. El Salvador is one of the few countries in the world that have declared Bitcoin as a legal tender.  

Ukraine 

Although Ukraine held 46,351 BTC through confiscation, it has 642 BTC mainly through war contributions.  

Bhutan 

Bhutan government is the third largest holder of bitcoins under this category. It holds 621 BTC. 

Venezuela 

The fourth leading holder of bitcoins under this category is Venezuela. It holds 240 BTC. 

Georgia 

Concluding the list of bitcoin holders under this category is Georgia. It currently holds 66 BTC. 

Note:

North Korea is suspect to hold huge amounts of bitcoins – probably more than any other government in the world. However, due to the secretive nature of this country, the number of bitcoin crypto coins under its holding remains unknown.  

7. Top 5 Confiscators of Bitcoins 

Bitcoin confiscators
Bitcoin confiscators

These are government entities responsible for the largest seizures and holdings of confiscated Bitcoin crypto assets.  

[Note: Some of the listed entities may have auctioned or disposed of their holdings, either in whole or in part, as at the time of publishing this article.] 

  1. The United States government – over 215,000 BTC 
  1. Bulgaria – 200,000 BTC 
  1. Chinese government – over 190,000 BTC 
  1. United Kingdom – 61,000 BTC 
  1. Germany – 50,000 BTC 

Caution 

Caution
Caution

In considering the rankings in this article, you need to keep the following in mind: 

1. Potential changes 

The rankings and respective Bitcoin amounts are as of the date of writing this article. The latest data may have changed as of the date of publishing.  

2. Pseudonymity and limited disclosures 

The pseudonymity of the Bitcoin wallet address makes it difficult to determine exactly how much worth each holder owns. Thus, the listings are derived based on the ‘best knowledge’ criterion, rather than the absolute knowledge. 

3. Lost and/or burnt bitcoins 

Millions of bitcoins are deemed to have been lost since they are not in active circulation because the owners lost their private keys or remains unclaimed estate.  It is estimated that up to 4 million bitcoins are due to lost private keys. Thus, their ownership cannot be accounted for.

4. Hackings 

Ownership through hacking cannot be deemed legal ownership. Yet, unless identified and appropriate legal action taken, the ownership status may remain unknown. 

5. Seizures 

Bitcoin ownership gained through legal seizure and confiscation by governments is not ranked as ownership for purposes of the ranking in this article. In terms of acquisition through seizures, I have created a separate category. 

6. Information availability 

Ranking is based on publicly available information.  

7. Holding vs. Owning 

While I have made best effort list only owners, sometimes it may not be easy to establish a boundary between those who are simply holders rather than owners of bitcoins. 

Up Next

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Hudson Kisia has been researching and writing content for ElementalCrypto since 2022. He has been writing about crypto, blockchains, and mining for more than 5 years now.

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